Work and beyond (crosspost from Crooked Timber)

A little while ago, Ross Douthat tweeted a link to this Aeon article of mine, reflecting on Keynes ‘Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren’, which gave rise to some interesting discussion (Memo to self: Find out about Storify). Now he’s addressed the topic in the New York Times, linking directly to Keynes essay. There’s some interesting food for thought here. Unfortunately, it’s mixed up with some silly stuff reflecting his job as the NY Times token Republican, in which capacity he has to do some damage control over the exposure of the latest Repub lie saying that Obamacare will cost 2.5 million jobs. As Douthat delicately puts it “this is not exactly right”. But, although his heart clearly isn’t it, he tries to construct a narrative in which the Repubs might be right for the wrong reasons, or, in an even less-felicitous defence, mean-spirited and inaccurate but justified by the success of Reaganism thirty years ago.

More interesting though, is Douthat’s discussion comparing idealised hopes for a post-work society with the reality in which well-educated professionals are working longer hours than ever, while many at the bottom end of the income distribution, particularly poorer men have withdrawn from the formal labour force altogether (presumably, relying on disability benefits or scraping a living in the informal economy). One possible solution to this problem, is simply to give the poor more money, for example, in the form of a basic income, and not worry about whether they choose to work. Douthat isn’t too happy about this idea, saying

Both “rugged individualist” right-wingers and more communitarian conservatives tend to see work as essential to dignity, mobility and social equality, and see its decline as something to be fiercely resisted. The question is whether tomorrow’s liberals will be our allies in that fight.

But this position elides a bunch of crucial issues.

First, while work may be necessary to “dignity, mobility and social equality” in a market society, it certainly isn’t sufficient. For unionised US workers in the mid-20th century, earning middle-class incomes in relatively secure jobs and expecting better for their children, work was, arguably both necessary and sufficient to achieve a fair measure of these things. But an at-will employee, juggling two or three tenuous jobs that pay $7.25 an hour, and looking at a steady decline in real income, is scarcely getting much in the way of dignity, let alone mobility or social equality.

Equally importantly, market work isn’t the only kind of work people can do, and certainly not the most valuable. Most obviously, there’s the raising of children. The US the developed countries that does not provide any kind of paid parental leave, and even the legislative provision for unpaid leave (12 weeks a year for mothers in firms with more than 50 employees, nothing for fathers) is incredibly stingy. The idea that the ‘rugged individualists’ who block any improvements to these conditions actually care about the dignity of the working class is simply laughable.

I don’t need to tell Douthat any of this. It’s all in his book Grand New Party with Reihan Salam, notably including a proposal for a full year of paid parental leave. The book received cautiously respectful reviews from many in the centre and centre-left, but fell entirely flat with its intended audience in the Republican Party.

I’ll have a bit more to say about the kind of technological determinism that seeks to explain labour market polarisation as arising from computers and the Internet a bit later. For the moment, I’ll repeat the conclusion of my Aeon essay that a response to technological change that will preserve the link between work, dignity and equality will require both a reduction in total hours of work and an expansion in the range of social contributions regarded as work, beyond those that generate a market return

Finally, coming back to the argument about Obamacare. Whatever your views on work and incentives, it’s ludicrous to regard as beneficial a system that ties people to their current jobs through the fear of losing health insurance. The result is not just that people work longer hours than they would choose to do at the wages on offer: they are stuck with their current employer until they can find a new job offering comparable health benefits, something that is getting increasingly difficult to do.

The employer-based health insurance system was (like Obamacare in many ways) a kludge adopted[^1] because it was better than nothing, and because a sensible single-payer system couldn’t get through Congress. But it’s been broken for years, and can’t be sustained indefinitely.

Again, Douthat is clearly aware of all this, but can’t say so in his current position. I’m still expecting him to jump ship before too long, and I hope he doesn’t go through too many more exercises like this in the process.

[^1]: I’m drawing, from memory, on David Moss, When All Else Fails who explains why national health insurance never made it into the New Deal.

27 thoughts on “Work and beyond (crosspost from Crooked Timber)

  1. I like Ike(s apocalyptic vision ) too Mr Joggles (also your comment) ,and Jungney s hope .

    After WWII industry was supposed to eventually provide certain basics for all -then we could relax and enjoy more leisure time (Jetsons style !). It didnt happen ,we couldnt slow down. Too much is not enough .Now most people work too much and the rest not at all ,half the world is dying from over consumption and the other half from under consumption .

    It is possible to have dignity without paid work -possible but not easy given the messages all around us. I find most people like to work at something or other -people are naturally industrious. However society is not currently set up very well to facilitate people getting together to spend time in creative production outside paid work (work is usually boring and not creative anyway). Not having a boss to solve the ‘what should I do today ? ‘ question for you can be challenging but should be ultimately rewarding .

    I think the Howard govt valued the unpaid work done by retired people at about equal to 20% of GDP -child minding for grandchildren was a big factor, (then they proceeded to continue to describe older people as a dangerous drag on the rest of us anyway).

    I like growth in medical technology but apart from that I wish we would realise we have the basics of life covered ,share the work around ,and get on with a bit of that promised (productive or not) leisure time.

  2. @sunshine

    The problem is not “too much is not enough”, it is that we are a competitive species, and are not driven by absolute possessions, but rather by the desire to have more than others – i.e. to have a higher status.

    If it were not for this characteristic, we would be happy to share the industrial production more equally.

    The whinging of the right is mainly a complaint that they could be even more important if the hoi polloi were worse off.

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